This Figure illustrates the database structure required. For each patient the database must have the ability to measure at diagnosis baseline the factors that lead to treatment choice. At baseline CER/PCOR requires measures of (1) patient-specific clinical distinctions including medical history that may affect diagnosing and treatment choice (red box); (2) patient-reported outcomes prior to treatment (blue box); and (3) patient goal preferences, effectiveness beliefs, resiliency and constraints (pink box). Next, the database requires detailed descriptions of the treatments chosen (e.g. surgery (green box), physical therapy (orange box)) with dates of treatment. Lastly, the database requires the ability to measures the outcomes of treatment choice including patient-reported outcomes (blue box) and an exhaustive list of the healthcare resources by the patient during follow-up (purple box).